13. Roman to Integer (JAVA)

Roman numerals are represented by seven different symbols: IVXLCD and M.

Symbol       ValueI             1V             5X             10L             50C             100D             500M             1000

For example, two is written as II in Roman numeral, just two one’s added together. Twelve is written as, XII, which is simply X + II. The number twenty seven is written as XXVII, which is XX + V + II.

Roman numerals are usually written largest to smallest from left to right. However, the numeral for four is not IIII. Instead, the number four is written as IV. Because the one is before the five we subtract it making four. The same principle applies to the number nine, which is written as IX. There are six instances where subtraction is used:

  • I can be placed before V (5) and X (10) to make 4 and 9.
  • X can be placed before L (50) and C (100) to make 40 and 90.
  • C can be placed before D (500) and M (1000) to make 400 and 900.

Given a roman numeral, convert it to an integer. Input is guaranteed to be within the range from 1 to 3999.

Example 1:

Input: "III"Output: 3

Example 2:

Input: "IV"Output: 4

Example 3:

Input: "IX"Output: 9

Example 4:

Input: "LVIII"Output: 58Explanation: L = 50, V= 5, III = 3.

Example 5:

Input: "MCMXCIV"Output: 1994Explanation: M = 1000, CM = 900, XC = 90 and IV = 4.
class Solution {    public int romanToInt(String s) {        String sym = "MDCLXVI";        int[] val = {1000,500,100,50,10,5,1};        int num = 0;        int p; //array pointer        for(int i = 0; i < s.length(); i++){            p = sym.indexOf(s.charAt(i));            if(i+1 < s.length() && sym.indexOf(s.charAt(i+1)) < p){                num = num + val[sym.indexOf(s.charAt(i+1))] - val[p];                i++;            }            else{                num += val[p];            }        }        return num;    }}

解题思路:要处理的一个特殊情况是4,9,40…这类数,所以我们要扫描到当前位之后的那一位,判断是不是这种情况,做相应处理。